•A. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY (& ethnicity) Optional assignment for additional exam points:

-Vocabulary list and terms
-Reading Guide
-Notes in date order – Political theories, political boundaries/ shapes
-Handouts/Activities – TED video, State morphology, Core areas/Capitals + Forward capital map of Kashmir, Supranationalism/Devolution EU map, Letting Africans…, 16th Man video,

B. Vocabulary terms

C. Reading guide (2 chapters)

D. RESOURCESVideo > The tuture of the state >

Review of countries of the world>

Character of State territory & Gerrymandering reading

Gerrymandering reading for Crossword

gerrymandering crossword rdg 1617.jpgLink to Gerrymandering indie video - Fun Gerrymandering song!



1. The space of the state grows with the expansion of the population having the same culture.
2. Territorial growth follows other aspects of development.
3. A state grows by absorbing smaller units.
4. The frontier is the peripheral organ of the state that reflects the strength and growth of the state; hence it is not permanent.
5. States in the course of their growth seek to absorb politically valuable territory.
6. The impetus for growth comes to a primitive state from a more highly developed civilization.
7. The trend toward territorial growth is contagious and increases in the process of transmission.


E. Political geography notes

Some Political Geo notes I found on Youtube!

Mr. Elrod's Political Geography talk on Enclaves and Exclaves:

Supranationalism and European Union

Political geo slideshare notes


This review is good too -

IV. Political Organization of Space
This section of the course introduces students to the nature and significance of the political organization of territory at different scales. Students learn that political patterns reflect ideas of territoriality — how Earth’s surface should be organized — which in turn affect a wide range of exercises of power over space and boundaries.
Two major themes are the political geography of the modern state and relationships between countries. Students are introduced to the different forces that shaped the evolution of the contemporary world political map.
These forces include the rise of nation-states in Europe, the influence of colonialism, the rise of supranational organizations, and devolution of states.
Students learn about the basic structure of the political map, the inconsistencies between maps of political boundaries and maps of ethnic, economic, and environmental patterns.
In addition students consider some of the forces that are changing the role of individual countries in the modern world, including ethnic separatism, terrorism, economic globalization, and social and environmental problems that cross national boundaries, such as climate change.
This part of the course also focuses on subnational and supranational political units. For example, at the scale above the state, attention is directed to regional alliances, such as NATO, the European Union, ASEAN, and NAFTA.
At the scale below the state, students are introduced to the ways in which electoral districts, municipalities, indigenous areas, and autonomous lands affect political, social, and economic processes.

IV. Political Organization of Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13–17%
A. Territorial dimensions of politics
1. The concepts of political power and territoriality
2. The nature, meaning, and function of boundaries
3. Influences of boundaries on identity, interaction, and exchange
4. Federal and unitary states, confederations, centralized government, and forms of governance
5. Spatial relationships between political systems and patterns of ethnicity, economy, and gender
6. Political ecology: impacts of law and policy on the environment and environmental justice
B. Evolution of the contemporary political pattern
1. The nation-state concept
2. Colonialism and imperialism
3. Democratization
4. Fall of communism and legacy of the Cold War
5. Patterns of local, regional, and metropolitan governance
C. Changes and challenges to political-territorial arrangements
1. Changing nature of sovereignty
2. Fragmentation, unification, and cooperation
3. Supranationalism and international alliances
4. Devolution of countries: centripetal and centrifugal forces
5. Electoral geography: redistricting and gerrymandering
6. Armed conflicts, war, and terrorism